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The Preamble to the Constitution of India is an introductory statement that sets forth the objectives and purposes of the Constitution. It was adopted on 26th November 1949 by the Constituent Assembly of India and came into effect on 26th January 1950, the day when India became a republic.
The Preamble reads as follows:
“We, the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a sovereign socialist secular democratic republic and to secure to all its citizens:
Justice, social, economic and political; Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; Equality of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;
In our Constituent Assembly, this twenty-sixth day of November 1949, do hereby adopt, enact and give to ourselves this Constitution.”
The Preamble contains the fundamental principles and values that are the basis of the Indian Constitution. It begins with the phrase “We, the people of India,” which emphasizes the fact that the Constitution is created by and for the people of India. The Preamble also declares India to be a “sovereign socialist secular democratic republic,” which means that India is an independent nation with its own government, which is based on socialist, secular, and democratic principles.
The Preamble also lays out the goals that the Constitution aims to achieve. These goals include justice (social, economic, and political), liberty (of thought, expression, belief, faith, and worship), equality (of status and of opportunity), and fraternity (assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation). These goals reflect the aspirations of the people of India for a society that is just, free, and equal.
The Indian Constitution has 12 schedules, which deal with various administrative and technical details such as the allocation of seats in the Rajya Sabha (Upper House of Parliament), the recognition of official languages, and the forms of oaths and affirmations.
The Indian Constitution is divided into 25 parts, which cover a wide range of topics such as citizenship, fundamental rights, directive principles of state policy, finance, emergency provisions, and amendment procedures. Each part contains several articles that detail the specific provisions and rules governing that area of governance. The Constitution's structure is designed to ensure that power is distributed among the various branches of government and that the rights and freedoms of citizens are protected.
The Indian Constitution has a total of 448 articles, which cover various aspects of governance and administration in the country. Some of the key articles include Article 14, which guarantees equality before the law, Article 19, which guarantees the right to freedom of speech and expression, Article 21, which guarantees the right to life and personal liberty, and Article 370, which provides special status to the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Amendment of Indian Constitution: A Brief Overview
The Indian Constitution is a living document that can be amended to accommodate changing needs and circumstances. Here is the brief overview of the amendment process in India and the key features of the amending process.
The Indian Constitution, adopted on January 26, 1950, is a living document that has been amended over time to accommodate changing needs and circumstances. The process of amending the Indian Constitution is governed by Article 368, which outlines the procedure for amending the Constitution.
The amending process in India requires a two-thirds majority of the members present and voting in each house of Parliament. In addition, the amendment must be ratified by at least half of the state legislatures before it can become law. However, some provisions of the Constitution require a special majority, which means that the amendment must be passed by a two-thirds majority of the members present and voting, as well as by a majority of the total membership of each house of Parliament.
The Indian Constitution is unique in that it includes a provision for judicial review, which means that the judiciary can review the constitutionality of legislative and executive actions. This provision ensures that fundamental rights are protected and that the government operates within the bounds of the Constitution.
Over the years, several amendments have been made to the Indian Constitution. Some of the most significant amendments include the 42nd Amendment, which introduced the phrase “socialist, secular” into the preamble of the Constitution, and the 44th Amendment, which curtailed some of the powers of the government during a state of emergency.
In conclusion, the Indian Constitution is a living document that has been amended over time to accommodate changing needs and circumstances. The amending process is governed by Article 368 and requires a two-thirds majority of the members present and voting in each house of Parliament. The provision for judicial review ensures that the government operates within the bounds of the Constitution and that fundamental rights are protected.
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