Part X of the Indian Constitution deals with the Scheduled and Tribal Areas. These areas are specially recognized for the welfare and development of tribal communities. The Constitution provides certain special provisions and safeguards for the development of these areas and the welfare of the people living in them.
The Scheduled Areas are those areas which are specified in the Fifth Schedule of the Indian Constitution. These areas are predominantly inhabited by Scheduled Tribes. The Tribal Areas, on the other hand, are those areas which are specified in the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution. These areas are predominantly inhabited by tribal communities.
The Constitution provides for the establishment of Tribal Advisory Councils in the Scheduled Areas to advise the Governor on matters related to the welfare of the Scheduled Tribes in these areas. The Governor is also empowered to make regulations for the peace and good government of these areas.
In the Tribal Areas, the Constitution provides for the establishment of Autonomous District Councils and Autonomous Regional Councils. These councils have the power to make laws on certain matters and to regulate the management of their own affairs. The Governor has limited powers to make laws for these areas.
Apart from these constitutional provisions, the government of India has also launched various schemes and programs for the welfare and development of the tribal communities living in these areas. Some of these schemes include the Tribal Sub-Plan, the Integrated Tribal Development Program, and the Pradhan Mantri Van Dhan Yojana.
In conclusion, Part X of the Indian Constitution recognizes the special needs and requirements of the tribal communities living in the Scheduled and Tribal Areas. It provides for certain special provisions and safeguards for their welfare and development. The government of India also has various schemes and programs in place to ensure the overall development of these areas and the people living in them.