Article 3 of the Indian Constitution deals with the formation of new states, alteration of existing states and the boundaries of the states. It gives the power to the Indian Parliament to make laws for the creation of new states or the alteration of the existing states. The article is one of the important provisions of the Constitution as it provides for the procedure to be followed in forming or dissolving a state.
Article 3 provides for the procedure to be followed for the creation of a new state or the alteration of the existing states. It states that the Parliament may by law:
Form a new state by separation of territory from any state or by uniting two or more states or parts of states or by uniting any territory to a part of any state.
Increase the area of any state.
Diminish the area of any state.
Alter the boundaries of any state.
The article also specifies that a Bill for the formation of a new state or the alteration of the existing state must be introduced in either House of Parliament only with the prior recommendation of the President. The President may refer the Bill to the State Legislature for expressing its views thereon within a specified period.
After considering the views of the State Legislature, if any, the Parliament may pass the Bill with or without modifications. The Bill must be passed by a simple majority in both the Houses of Parliament, and the President must give his assent before it becomes a law.
Article 3 is a significant provision of the Indian Constitution, as it empowers the Indian Parliament to reorganize the states on the basis of various factors, including linguistic and cultural diversity, geographical contiguity, administrative and economic viability, and political aspirations of the people. The article also ensures that the interests of all the affected states are duly taken into account before a new state is formed or an existing state is altered.
In conclusion, Article 3 of the Indian Constitution gives the power to the Parliament to create new states or alter the boundaries of the existing states. The article provides a mechanism for the reorganization of states, which ensures that the interests of all stakeholders are considered before any decision is made.