Part VI of the Indian Constitution: The States

The Indian Constitution, which was adopted on January 26, 1950, is the supreme law of the land and sets out the framework for governance in India. Part VI of the Indian Constitution deals with the States, which are the constituent units of the Indian Union.

The States in India have their own governments, which are responsible for the administration of their respective territories. The State Governments have the power to legislate on matters within their jurisdiction and also exercise executive and judicial powers.

Part VI of the Constitution contains provisions for the functioning of the State governments. It establishes a parliamentary system of government at the state level, a federal system of government, and the judicial system at the state level.

Part VI of Indian Constitution Consist of Articles from Article 152 To 237


Chapter I.—General

Article 152: Definition

Chapter II.—The Executive

Article 153: Governors of States

Article 154: Executive power of State

Article 155: Appointment of Governor

Article 156: Term of office of Governor

Article 157: Qualifications for appointment as Governor

Article 158: Conditions of Governor’s office

Article 159: Oath or affirmation by the Governor

Article 160: Discharge of the functions of the Governor in certain contingencies

Article 161: Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases

Article 162: Extent of executive power of State

Article 163: Council of Ministers to aid and advise Governor

Article 164: Other provisions as to Ministers

Article 165: Advocate-General for the State

Article 166: Conduct of business of the Government of a State

Article 167: Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information to Governor, etc.

Chapter III.—The State Legislature

Article 168: Constitution of Legislatures in States

Article 169: Abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in States

Article 170: Composition of the Legislative Assemblies

Article 171: Composition of the Legislative Councils

Article 172: Duration of State Legislatures

Article 173: Qualification for membership of the State Legislature

Article 174: Sessions of the State Legislature, prorogation and dissolution

Article 175: Right of Governor to address and send messages to the House or Houses

Article 176: Special address by the Governor

Article 177: Rights of Ministers and Advocate-General as respects the Houses

Article 178: The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly

Article 179: Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and Deputy Speaker

Article 180: Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Speaker

Article 181: The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration

Article 182: The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council

Article 183: Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Chairman and Deputy Chairman

Article 184: Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Chairman

Article 185. The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration

Article 186: Salaries and allowances of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker and the Chairman and Deputy Chairman

Article 187: Secretariat of State Legislature

Article 188: Oath or affirmation by members

Article 189: Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum

Article 190: Vacation of seats

Article 191: Disqualifications for membership

Article 192: Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members

Article 193: Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under article 188 or when not qualified or when disqualified

Article 194: Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Legislatures and of the members and committees thereof

Article 195: Salaries and allowances of members

Article 196: Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills

Article 197: Restriction on powers of Legislative Council as to Bills other than Money Bills

Article 198: Special procedure in respect of Money Bills

Article 199: Definition of “Money Bills”

Article 200: Assent to Bills

Article 201: Bills reserved for consideration

Article 202: Annual financial statement

Article 203: Procedure in Legislature with respect to estimates

Article 204: Appropriation Bills

Article 205: Supplementary, additional or excess grants

Article 206: Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants

Article 207: Special provisions as to financial Bills

Article 208: Rules of procedure

Article 209: Regulation by law of procedure in the Legislature of the State in relation to financial business

Article 210: Language to be used in the Legislature

Article 211: Restriction on discussion in the Legislature

Article 212: Courts not to inquire into proceedings of the Legislature

Chapter IV.—Legislative Power of the Governor

Article 213: Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature

Chapter V.—The High Courts in the States

Article 214: High Courts for States

Article 215: High Courts to be courts of record

Article 216: Constitution of High Courts

Article 217: Appointment and conditions of the office of a Judge of a High Court

Article 218: Application of certain provisions relating to Supreme Court to High Courts

Article 219: Oath or affirmation by Judges of High Courts

Article 220: Restriction on practice after being a permanent Judge

Article 221: Salaries, etc., of Judges

Article 222: Transfer of a Judge from one High Court to another

Article 223: Appointment of acting Chief Justice

Article 224: Appointment of additional and acting Judges

Article 224A: Appointment of retired Judges at sittings of High Courts

Article 225: Jurisdiction of existing High Courts

Article 226: Power of High Courts to issue certain writs

Article 227: Power of superintendence over all courts by the High Court

Article 228: Transfer of certain cases to High Court

Article 229: Officers and servants and the expenses of High Courts

Article 230: Extension of jurisdiction of High Courts to Union territories

Article 231: Establishment of a common High Court for two or more States

Chapter VI.—Subordinate Courts

Article 233: Appointment of district judges

Article 233A: Validation of appointments of, and judgments, etc., delivered by, certain district judges

Article 234: Recruitment of persons other than district judges to the judicial service

Article 235: Control over subordinate courts

Article 236: Interpretation

Article 237: Application of the provisions of this Chapter to certain class or classes of magistrates

One of the key features of the Indian Constitution is its federal nature, which means that power is shared between the Centre and the States. Part VI of the Indian Constitution lays down the framework for this relationship between the Centre and the States, defining the respective powers and responsibilities of each.

Under Part VI of the Indian Constitution, the legislative power of a State is vested in a State Legislature, which consists of a Governor and one or two Houses, depending on the State. The executive power of a State is vested in the Governor, who is appointed by the President of India, and the Chief Minister, who is appointed by the Governor.

The judiciary in a State is also independent of the Centre and is headed by a High Court, which has jurisdiction over the entire State.

In addition to defining the powers and responsibilities of the State Government, Part VI of the Indian Constitution also lays down the process for the creation or alteration of State boundaries and the admission or establishment of new States.

Part VI of the Indian Constitution outlines the powers and responsibilities of the State Governments in India, and establishes the framework for the relationship between the Centre and the States. Its provisions play a critical role in ensuring that the Indian Union operates smoothly and that the interests of all its constituent units are protected.

Overall, understanding Part VI of the Indian Constitution is crucial for anyone seeking to comprehend the Indian federal system and the role played by the States in India’s governance structure.

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